The phenomenon covered in the next category - 50's Rock - doesn't seem to leave much room for anything else in this decade.
Jazz was still going strong and kept growing, and expanding, and exploring styles and possibilities: the easy swing was making way to harder beats, as though the beat suddenly said: "Hey, you've been playing me down for so many centuries, now I'm going to explode!". The beatnicks snapped their fingers to "cool" jazz; latin rythms were starting to permeate the mainstream anglo-saxon market and culture, and jazz started to fusion with music from other parts of the world.
Doris Day was singing Que Será, Será!, The Chordettes popularized Mr. Sandman.
In the movies, Gene Kelly and Fred Astaire were trying to surpass each other's dance choreographies. (Strange as it may sound, I believe they both succeeded).
Marilyn Monroe was ripping the screen apart from silver to staggering color and singing a cover of Betty Boop's I Wanna Be Loved By You which made all the boys, and most men, go completely berserk.